ZOO507 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES
ZOO507: GENERAL ECOLOGY PAST PAPERS
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ZOO507: GENERAL ECOLOGY
Ecology is the study of the relationship between living things, including humans, and their physical environment; seeks to understand the vital connections between plants and animals and the world around them. Ecology also provides information on the benefits of the ecosystem and how we can use Earth’s resources in ways that leave the environment healthy for future generations. ZOO507 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES
The word ecology is derived from the Greek word “Oikos” meaning house, combined with “logy” which means the study of ecology and therefore can be translated as “learning about the natural house”, or the word ecology is not of ancient Greek origin. The term ecology was first used in 1869 by German biologist Ernst Haeckel. The concept of evolution grew slowly, and in the 20th century, it was still unknown to a group of biologists. They were mostly botanists, who first used the term ecology but later as well as zoologists. ZOO507 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES
There has been much debate on how ecology should be defined and categorized into related fields. Ecology has previously been described as “the study of the distribution and quantity of living things in an area. This definition of ecology, which some people still use, is different from what is commonly used today. In the following, a brief description of modern ecology is given, followed by a brief description of what the ecosystem means.
Living and non-living things are called biosystems. The highest level of organization is society, which includes all animals, plants, and microorganisms in a particular area. The community that works together with the abiotic components of a biosystem is called an ecological system or ecosystem. When you move from a biosystem to another level of organization, traits appear that were not at the lower level of the organization.
This phenomenon is known as the “integration concept” or “sequential control principle”, in which when biotic and abiotic components are combined to form large functional units in a hierarchical (standard) series, new features emerge. ZOO507 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES
Ecological succession is a characteristic temporal order in which plant and animal species replace each other in an ecosystem. The sequence for example may be started by burning the forest area or by adding nutrients to the biotope. One can distinguish between two different models that describe the natural order:
1) The auxiliary model describes an ecological sequence, in which the first plants that open the way open the way for successive stages that would not be able to survive under open conditions. Examples of simplification-sequencing can be found in natural systems starting from sand, rocks and the like, where the first sequence stages produce more soil and other important conditions (e.g. favorable microclimate) for later species in the sequence.
2) The tolerance model describes an environmental sequence in which a path has been previously opened to accelerate the growth of existing “tolerant” plants in a pre-ecosystem system where they may have slowed growth in the background. In the shade, pioneering plants prevent them from producing, and other shade-tolerant plants emerge. If the forest is burned or the cultivated field is abandoned, the fast-growing annual and perennial crops will come first. After 10-25 years, shrubs and low trees have suppressed the pioneer plants.
After 25-100 years, the trees have been replaced by tall conifers, and the sequence will gradually reach its “peak” by establishing a mixed forest of conifers and deciduous trees. ZOO507 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES