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They do not produce EPSPs or IPSPs. They cause long-term changes that are minor modify, suppress or enhance the action of the neurotransmitter at the synapse. They can work as autocrine or paracrine agents. As an autocrine agent, they bind to the cell that created them presynaptic cell. ALSO, SEE:
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As a paracrine agent, they bind to receptors on one or more postsynaptic cells cause the release of a neurotransmitter. Effects of neuromodulation Development of complex behavior patterns, eg happiness, exploration, revenge, reward, greed. Processes of thinking, cognition, planning, learning and memory.
Behavioral problems: mood swings, sleep disturbances, feelings of stress, anxiety, anger and depression. Pharmacological applications Extensive pharmacological applications for the treatment of complex and challenging nerves diseases. e.g. ADHD Narcolepsy Epilepsy TOPIC 42 Neural Integration Definition.
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The effect of excitation produced by a single presynaptic terminal almost never excites postsynaptic neuron. It is b/c a transmitter released by one terminal can cause an reach the threshold for excitation. To provide this amount of EPSPs, many presynaptic the terminals are stimulated simultaneously.
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Their effects can add up even if they are spreads spatially to the soma. The cumulative EPSP can cause excitation. This effect from the summation of widely spaced multiple PSPs is called a spatial sum. Meaning of Summation.