STA630 HANDOUTS, STA630: Research Methods Handouts

STA630 HANDOUTS

STA630: Research Methods Handouts

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STA630 HANDOUTS
STA630 HANDOUTS

STA630 HANDOUTS 

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STA630: Research Methods Handouts

Course Category: Probability & Statistics

Course Outline

This study prepares participants to analyze different situations in a systematic, logical, and scientific way. Students will learn the complete process of conducting research using a variety of research methods. This study covers all the important aspects of research ie different types of research, sample techniques, focus groups, discussions, etc. We are developing a critical thinking process that enables participants to analyze quantity and quality data and reach sound conclusions for informed decisions.

What Is Research?

A common picture of research is that it is related to the laboratory where scientists are said to be doing certain research. Someone interviewing consumers to get their opinion on the new packaging of milk also did some research. Research is simply a process of finding solutions to a problem after researching and analyzing aspects of the situation. It is the gathering of the information needed to answer a question, and thus help solve the problem.

We do not read in any formal way. Instead, we try to follow a plan or process in a systematic way. It is very necessary if we want to repeat the study, or if someone else wants to confirm our findings. In this latest story, someone has to follow the same procedure as we followed. So we must not only do research in a systematic way but also that the process should be known to others.

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SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF RESEARCH & ITS SPECIAL FEATURES

Research produces information that can be used to solve problems and to formulate theories, principles and laws of the universe. But all knowledge is not science. An important factor that distinguishes scientific knowledge from other methods of obtaining information is that it uses a scientific method. What is this method? Any science?

When most people hear the word science, the first image that comes to mind is one of the test tubes, computers, rocket ships, and people in white coats. These external sequencing systems are part of science. Other sciences, such as natural science, speak to the physical world and the earth. Other sciences include human learning – their beliefs, behavior, communication, attitude, institutions, and so on. They are sometimes called soft science.

This is not because their work is sloppy or rigid but because their theme, public life, is liquid, weird, and difficult to measure accurately with laboratory tools. The scientific topic (e.g. human psychology, protoplasm, or galaxies) determines the techniques and tools (e.g. surveys, microscopes, or telescopes) that it uses.

Important Characteristics of Scientific Method

  1. Empirical

The scientific method is based on facts revealed through “sensory experience.” It produces information that is verified by information or by observation. Other facts can be considered directly, such as the number of students in the class and the number of males, and the number of females. The same students have attitudes, values, motivations, desires, and commitments. These are also facts that cannot be seen directly, but researchers have developed ways to look at them indirectly.

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Any truth that cannot be directly or indirectly embodied in “the true knowledge” (heavenly existence, Judgment Day, life hereafter, God’s rewards for good deeds) does not fall within the realm of the scientific method.

  1. Verifiable

Scientific observations should also be confirmed through the use of sensors to confirm or refute previous findings. Such confirmation may need to be made by the same researcher or others. We will place greater trust and confidence in the findings and conclusions if the same findings are based on data collected by other researchers using the same methods. To the extent that it happens (i.e. results are repeated or repeated) we will gain confidence in the scientific context of our research. Repetition, in this way, is an important aspect of the scientific method. Revelations and intuitions are therefore outside the realm of the scientific method.

  1. Cumulative

Before the start of any study, researchers tried to scan the literature and found that their study was not duplicated by ignorance. Instead of refurbishing the wheel, the researchers looked at the existing body of knowledge and tried to build on it. And the researchers do not leave their findings in the research into fragmentary fragments and fragments. Facts and figures should be provided in a language and thus ideas are taken into account. Results should be well planned and organized.

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However, we do not want to leave our studies independent. The connection between the current and the previous information must be established, and that is how information accumulates. Every new baby plant doesn’t have to start over; the existing knowledge body provides a great foundation on which researchers build and that is why knowledge continues to grow.

  1. Deterministic

Science is based on the premise that all events have underlying causes that are less likely to be understood and understood. For a scientist, nothing “happens” – it happens for a reason. Scientists are trying to explain this emerging phenomenon by discovering its causes. Which of the following causes is the most important? For example, in the 2006 BA / BS Punjab University exam 67 percent of students failed. What could be the cause of such a huge student failure?

The researcher may attempt to explain the incident and come up with a variety of reasons for students, teachers, administration, curriculum, textbooks, exam programs, and more. Looking at such a large number of reasons can be a very difficult model for problem-solving. It may be necessary to say, in each case, which is the most important, the second most important, the third most important, and which are the two most important.

The researcher attempts to reduce the number of reasons in such a way that certain steps are taken. Therefore, the implementation of a logical model, rather than a detailed and complex one, the problem-solving model becomes a critical problem in research. That is parsimony which means meaning with a small number of variables that are responsible for the negative state.

  1. . Ethical and Ideological Neutrality

Conclusions drawn by the interpretation of the results of the data analysis should be objective; that is, they should be based on facts found on real data, and not on our own image or emotional values. For example, if we were to assume that greater participation in decision-making would increase organizational commitment, and this was not based on results, it would be absurd if the researcher continued to argue that increased opportunities for staff participation would still be helpful.

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Such an argument will be based, not on facts, based on data-based research, but on the opinion of an independent researcher. If this was always the researcher’s belief, there was no need for research at the outset. Researchers are human beings, with individual opinions, interfaith religions, and cultural differences that may influence the findings of the study.

Any disruption of their personal preferences and dislikes in their research could tarnish the purity of the data, which may affect the predictions made by the researcher. Therefore, one of the essential elements of the scientific method is to follow a system of thought, to support neutrality, and to present results impartially.

  1. Statistical Generalization

Generalizability refers to the scope of research results in one area of ​​organization in other settings. Clearly, when the scope of the application of the solutions is produced by the research, the research is very useful for the users. For example, when a researcher’s findings that participation in decision-making enhances organizational commitment are found to be true in various manufacturing, industrial, and service organizations, not just in a particular research organization, the fulfillment of other organizational findings is enhanced. The more common the research, the more useful it is and the more important it is.

STA630: Research Methods Handouts

In order to be comprehensive, the design of the research sample should be reasonably developed and many other details in the data collection methods need to be carefully followed. Here the use of statistics is very helpful. Statistics is a tool for comparing what is seen with what is logically expected. The use of mathematics is useful in making generalizations, which is one of the purposes of the scientific method.

  1. Rationalism

Science is basically a logical operation, and the scientific explanation must be logical. Religion may be based on revelation, tradition, or tradition, gambling on faith, but science must be based on reason.

Scholars distinguish between dynamic thinking (from certain contexts to general principles, from facts to theories) and subjugated thinking (from conventional to special, applied to theory in a particular context). In practice, a person begins with targeted data and develops a generalization that defines the relationship between the visuals. On the other hand, in subjugation, a person begins with another common law and applies it to a particular situation.

STA630 HANDOUTS

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STA630: Research Methods Handouts

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