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#### STA100 MIDTERM SOLVED PAPERS

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##### General Mathematics and Biostatistics:

A quantitative variable can be classified as discrete or continuous. A discrete variable is one that can only have a a discrete set of integers or integers, which are values, are taken with jumps or breaks. Discrete variable represents numerical data, such as the number of people in a family, the number of rooms in a house, the number of deaths in the event of an accident, individual income, etc. A variable, whether countable or measurable, is generally denoted by some symbol such as X or Y and Xi or Xu represents the itch or jot value of the variable. The subscript i or j is replaced by a number such as 1,2,3, . when referenced to a specific value. MEASURING WEIGHTS The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. are also used to denote ranks. The only relation that holds between any pair of categories is that “greater than” (or preferred).

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A variable is called a continuous variable if it can take on any value—a fraction or an integral—within a given interval, i.e. its domain is the interval with all possible values without gaps. A continuous variable represents measurement data such as person’s age, plant height, commodity weight, temperature at place etc.

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By measurement we usually mean assigning a number to observations or objects, and scaling is a process measurement. The four measurement scales are summarized below: NOMINAL SCALE It is called the classification or grouping of observations into mutually exclusive qualitative categories or classes form a nominal scale. For example, students are classified as male and female. Number 1 and 2 can also be used to identify these two categories. Similarly, rainfall can be classified as heavy, moderate and light.

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1, 2 and 3 to indicate the three precipitation classes. Numbers if used only to identify categories the given scale has no numerical meaning and there is no particular order for grouping. It includes the characteristic of a nominal scale and additionally has the property of ordering or ranking Measurement. For example, the performance of pupils (or players) is rated as excellent, good fair or poor etc.

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A measurement scale that has a constant interval size (distance) but does not have a true zero point is called an interval scale. Temperature measured on the Celsius or Fahrenheit scale is an excellent example of an interval scale because the same difference exists between 20o C (68o F) and 30 °C (86 °C F) between 5 °C (41 °C F) and 15 °C (59 °C F). It can’t to say that a temperature of 40 degrees is twice as high as a temperature of 20 degrees, i.e. the ratio 40/20 has no importance. Arithmetic operation of addition, subtraction, etc. makes sense..