ENG512 Handouts pdf download | Bilingualism Notes (pdf)

ENG512: Bilingualism

Bilingualism is the ability of individuals or community members to use two languages effectively. A bilingual person is a bilingual person. A person who speaks more than two languages ​​is called ‘multilingual’. ENG512 Handouts pdf

ENG512 Handouts pdf

Course Category:  ENG512 Handouts pdf

Course Outline

1. Definitions and Guiding Principles of Bilingualism 2. Forms of Language and Change 3. Collective Aspects of Language Behavior  4. Dimensions and  Measurement of Bilingualism 5. Societal Bilingualism 6.Languages in Contact 7. Sociopolitics of Bilingualism 8. What Does It Mean to Be a Bilingual? 9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Bilingualism 10.Bilingualism: Four Essential Characteristics 11. Who Speaks to Whom and Which Language? 12.Domains of Language Behavior 13.Other Sources of Variance and Domain Configuration 14.Social Meaning in Linguistic Structure 15.Code-Switching 16.Linguistic Dimensions of Bilingualism- Early Language Development 17.Explanations of Language Mixing 18.Other Explanations of Language Mixing 19. Researching Bilingualism 20. Bilingual Education

21. Reimagining Bilingualism 22.Geopolitics and Language Orientation in Bilingualism 23.Languaging, Education and Language Construction 24.Languaging and Language 25.Languages in Education 26.Imposition of Standard Language: Reasons 27.Bilingualism and Translanguaging 28.Translanguaging Framework 29.Models of Bilingual 30. Questioning Assumptions 31. Bilingual Abilities and Bilingual Development 32.Adult Vs. Child Bilingualism 33.Bilingualism: Language Maintenance and Shift 34.Language Policy and Language Rights 35.Bilingualism in the Curriculum 36.Bilingual Arrangements 37.Bilingual Arrangements: Flexible Convergent 38.Flexible Multiplicity

39. Responsible Code-Switching: Two Ways 40.Other Bilingual Strategies 41.More Bilingual Strategies for Classrooms 42.Bilingual Practices: Translanguaging 43.Models of Bilingual Teaching 44.Bilingual Education- Approach and Methods 45.Principle and Practices of Bilingualism: 21st Century Skills 46.Language Policies and their Consequence 47.Paradigm Shift in Localization 48.Politics of Languages in Education: Issues of Access, Social Participation, and Inequality in the Multilingual Context of Pakistan 49.The Study: Methods and Findings 50.Finding: Language-Based Discriminatory Practices In Education and Issues of Participation. ENG512 Handouts pdf

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ENG512: Bilingualism


Bilingualism refers to the state of a multilingual society in which two languages ​​interact with the result that two codes can be applied in the same way and that the population speaks bilingualism (societal bilingualism). It includes the idea of ​​dualism.


Bilinguality is the attitude of a person who can access more than one language code as a means of communication. The level of access will vary according to the degree of intellectual, psychological, psycholinguistic, social psychology, sociology, sociology, sociolinguistic, sociocultural and linguistic.

Language Processing Levels

There are at least two levels of language function: the level of performance, in which all the meanings and purposes to be expressed are represented; and the legal standard, in which all the additional conditions used in language are represented. Work plays a major role in how certain forms change over time and in how those forms are used by adults and received by children. Linguistic programming is the only form of implementation of a common semiotic system that forms a culture. It is good to differentiate between social functions, cognitive functions and semiotic language functions.

Language Change

Language never stops but changes over time. Word classification is an example of this developed for the purpose of minimizing communication between people/groups that speak indigenous languages. In the pidginization process, limited and simplified language types are developed. As the need for communication or work grows in society, new forms are created by speakers. Gradually these new forms perform extended functions until the pidgin changes to creole (form) as it becomes the next language of the mother tongue, and thus creates new functions.


At the individual level, high-level behavior is self-regulating. One considers ways to respond and correct behaviors, the same mechanisms also occur at a coherent level, for example, in the pidginization process.


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ENG512: Bilingualism Notes (pdf)