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When designing software, the programmer can specify the required inputs for this program, the desired outputs and the processing that the software would perform in order to provide the desired outputs. Implementation of the processing part is associated with application programming. It makes application programming easy implementation of the required processing to be performed by the software to carry out; all that remains now is facilitated by programming the system.
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Systems programming is the study of techniques that facilitate acquisition data from input devices, these techniques also facilitate the output of data that may be the result of processing performed by the application.
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A systems programmer can use a three-tier approach for systems programming. As you can see in the image, the user can directly access the programmable hardware to perform I/O operations. The user can use trivial Basic Input Output System (BIOS) routines to perform I/O In such a case, the programmer does not need to know the inner workings of the hardware and you only need knowledge of BIOS routines and their parameters.
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In this case, the BIOS programs the hardware for the desired I/O operation, which is hidden from the user. In the third case, the programmer can invoke the operation systems routines (DOS or whatever) to perform I/O operations. The the operating system will use BIOS routines or may program the hardware directly to perform the operation.