CS508 Handouts pdf
CS508: Modern Programming Languages Handouts (PDF)
Course Category: Computer Science/Information Technology CS508 Handouts pdf
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CS508: Modern Programming Languages
What are Information Systems?
Babbage’s Analytical Engine
Charles Babbage is credited with inventing the first computer. This machine, known as the Analytical Engine (or Difference Engine), was invented in the 1820s. Initially, it could only be done to perform tasks by changing gears that do the math. Thus, the first method of computer language was body language. The main features of this machine include Memory (called store), jump, loop, and sub-system concept. The success of the power struggles was encouraged. It had limited power and due to technical limitations, this design could not be fully utilized.
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator)
Gestures were eventually replaced by electronic signals when the US Government introduced the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) in 1942. He followed many of the same principles as the Babbage engine, therefore, it was “programmed” only by setting up switches and reconnecting cables. the whole system of each “program” or number. This process proved to be very tedious.
Von Neumann Architecture – 1945
In 1945, John Von Neumann was working at the Institute for Advanced Study. He developed two important concepts that directly affected the programming language of computer programming. The first is known as the “shared plan”. The process stated that real computer hardware should be simple and do not require a manual connection to each system. Instead, complex instructions should be used to control simple hardware, which allows it to be redesigned very quickly.
The First Programmer was a Lady
Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace lived in Dickens London and Prince Albert (and knew both of them). One hundred years before some of the best minds in the world used digital resources to build the digital computer, these two brilliant inventors dreamed of building their own “Analytical Engine”. He built an active prototype and used it, but with a reputation for lack of success, in a program to win riches in horse racing. Despite their obvious failures, Babbage was the first true computer designer, and Ada was the first editor of history.
FORTRAN, The First High Level Language
FORTRAN stands for FORMULA TRANslating system. It was the first used version of FORTRAN as FORTRAN 0 (1954) was never used. It was the first high-tech integrated language designed for the new IBM 704, which had reference registers and floating computer systems. At that time computers were small and unreliable, applications were scientific, and no systematic editing or tools were available. The efficiency of the machine was very important and there was no significant need for flexible storage. The language, therefore, required good management of the same members and counting of loops. No coin unit control or decimal-based support. Words can have up to six letters.
ALGOL 58 – 1958
ALGOL stands for ALGOrithmic Language. It was designed in 1958. At that time FORTRAN had (barely) arrived at the IBM 70x and was owned by IBM. Many more languages were developed, all for specific machines. There was no concrete language as they all depended on the machine. Also, there was no international language for communicating with algorithms.
COBOL – 1960
COBOL was designed in 1960 to support business-focused calculations that require fixed-point arithmetic. It is designed to look like simple English to expand the base of computer users. So it had to be easy to use, even if that meant it would have less power. Another consideration of the design was that it should not be demolished by the current producer. CS508 HANDOUTS
Basic – 1964
BASIC was designed by Kemeny & Kurtz at Dartmouth College with the following goals in mind: Easy to learn and use for non-scientific students; It must be “pleasant and friendly”; Rapidly changing schoolwork; Free and private access; User time is more important than computer time.
It was designed as a deceptive language of ropes (in Bell Labs by Farber, Griswold, and Polonsky). It had powerful operators to match the string pattern but could not read the poot well and its maintenance.