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CS401: Computer Architecture & Assembly Language Programming Solved Papers
Course Category: Computer Science/Information Technology
Basic Computer Architecture, Intel IAPX88 Architecture, Register Architecture, Addressing Modes, Address Wraparound, Branching, Conditional Jumps, Unconditional Jump, Bit Manipulation, Multiplication Algorithm, Shifting and Rotations, Extended Operations, Masking Operations, Subroutines, Stack, Parameter Passing through Stack , Display Memory, Display Memory Formation, Screen Location Calculation, String Instructions STOS, LODS, SCAS, MOVS and CMPS,
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CS401: Computer Architecture & Assembly Language Programming
The primary purpose of a computer is to perform tasks, and tasks require operands. Operands are the data from which we want to perform a specific task. Consider the function of the extension; involves adding two numbers to get their total. We can have one address directly on the address bus and as a result have one item on the data bus. At the same time the second operand cannot be delivered within the processor. Once the second one is selected, the first operand is no longer available.
For this reason, there are temporary storage areas within the processor called registers. Now one operand can be read from the register and added to another read directly in the memory. Both are accessible at the same time, one inside the processor and the other from outside the data bus. The result can be written to a different location as the task is complete and we can access a different memory cell. Sometimes we hold both operands in the registers so that we can work as efficiently as we can within the processor no doubt faster than when we have to go outside and deliver a second operand.
The registers are like a ram scratch pad inside the processor and their functionality is very similar to normal memory cells. They have specific locations and remember what is placed inside them. They are used if we need more than one data object within the processor at a time. The concept of the registers will be clarified as we progress in writing our first plan.
There is a central register for every processor called an accumulator. Traditionally all mathematical and logical functions are performed in an accumulator. The word size of the processor is defined by the width of its accumulator. The 32bit processor has a 32-bit accumulator.
Pointer, Index, or Base Register
The name varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, but the basic distinguishing feature is that it has no data but holds the data address. The reason can be understood by examining the loop “for” in high-level language, elements zeroing in the list of ten items found in successive memory cells. The area to be zero changes all duplicates. That is the address where the work done changes. The reference register is used in such a case to capture the local address of the current system.
Now the value in the index register cannot be treated as data, but data address. Usually whenever we need to access a memory location whose address is unknown until the time of operation we need a reference register. Without this register we would have to clearly write each review separately.
In new architectures the difference between the accumulator and the index register is not clear. They have standard registers with multiple functions and can perform both functions. They have special behavior but basic tasks can be performed in all general registers.
Flags Register or Program Status Word
This is a special register for all properties called the flag register or program name name. As an accumulator it registers 8, 16, or 32 bits but unlike the accumulator it does not mean anything as a unit, instead each piece has different meanings. The pieces of the accumulator work together harmoniously as a unit and each part means the same thing.
The pieces of the flag register work independently and individually, and together their value means nothing. An example of a common occurrence in the flag-carrying flag register. The carrying object can be slightly contained as in binary arithmetic the object can be zero or single. If a 16bit number is added to a 16bit accumulator, and the result is 17 bits 17th bit is inserted into the carrying part of the flag register. Without this 17 bit answer the answer is incorrect. Additional examples of flags will be discussed when referring to a specific Intel registry set.
Program Counter or Teaching Index
Everything has to be translated into a binary number so that our dumb processor can understand it, be it the operand or the function itself. The instructions themselves should therefore be interpreted numerically. For example adding numbers we understand the word “add.” We translate this word into numbers to make the researcher understand it. This number is the actual computer command. All objects, legacy and encapsulation formats in high quality languages translate down into numbers just by the language of integration at the end. Addition, multiplication, variation; all great
A stack is a data structure that behaves in the first place at the end. It can contain many elements and there is only one way to get in and out of the container. When an element is inserted it sits on top of all the other elements and when the element is removed the occupant is removed first. To visualize a building imagine a test tube and insert balls into it. The second ball will come over the first and the third ball will come over the second. Only when the ball is released can it be removed from the top.
The operation of placing an element on top of a stack is called pushing an element and the function of removing an element at the top of the stack is called the output of the element. The last push is coming out first; last in the first behavior.
PUSH reduces the SP (stack identifier) in pairs and then transmits the name from the active source to the top of the stack now identified by the SP. PUSH is often used to set limits on stack before calling the process; generally, it is a basic way to store temporary data in a container.
POP transfers the current name of the stack (marked by SP) into the workplace and raises the SP in pairs to point to the top of the stack. POP can be used to temporarily remove temporary variables from stack to registers or memory. Note that the PUSH operand is called the source operand as the data moves to the stack from the operand, while the POP function is called the destination as the data moves from the stack to the operand.
CALL activates offline process, storing data in a stack to allow for RET command (return) in the process of transferring control back to the message following the CALL. In the CALL of the straight intra segment, the SP is reduced by two and the IP is pushed into the stack. The related removal process from the CALL command is then added to the command prompt. In the CALL of the direct intersegment, the SP decreases by two, and the CS is pushed into the stack. CS replaces the component name contained in the command. SP also decreases by two. The IP is pushed into the stack and replaced by the offset name in the message.
Importance of Past Papers
Past papers assist you with detecting particular sorts of questions and recognise them. Seeing how questions are organised and what they’re posing to makes life more straightforward in exams when you’re confronted with loads of questions to figure out! Here you’ll find mega files of solved and unsolved past papers.
If you find past papers from any resource, use them! Do the most that you would be able, in light of the fact that doing various past papers can show you significantly more than doing only one, and they can go far to assist you with further developing your exam strategy, amendment information and, eventually, exam grades.
One of the most important benefits of practising past papers is that it helps students understand topics that are most likely to be put to the test. Since most courses have a variety of related topics, looking at past papers will help save a lot of time that we may spend on subjects that may not be on paper thus making human reviews more effective and more productive.
Benefits of Past Papers
- Helps to understand the length of time for possible testing;
- Indicates the standard number of questions;
- Indicates the number of options provided;
- It helps to find the time needed for each question;
- Identifies style of test questions (short answers, multiple choice or essays);
- It helps to practice test techniques;
- It helps to identify important topics to focus on in the review.