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Compounds that have the same composition and differ only in configuration (i.e fixed spatial arrangement of atoms) are called stereoisomers .Stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other are called enantiomers
Pairs of stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other are called diastereomers . The identifying characteristic of stereoisomers is that they cannot be interconverted without temporarily breaking one or more covalent bonds.
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A carbon atom to which four different atoms or groups of atoms are attached is said to be asymmetric or chiral.
The configuration is determined by the presence of both – (a) chiral centers around which the substituent groups are arranged specifically orientation –(b) double bonds about which there is no freedom of rotation.
CHE301 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS BY MOAAZ:
Geometric isomers; differ in the arrangement of their substituent groups in appearance to a non-rotating double bond (each is a well-defined compound that can be separated from different and each has its own unique chemical properties).
CHE301 FINAL TERM SOLVED PAPERS:
All monosaccharides except dihydroxyacetone contain one or more asymmetric (chiral) carbon atoms and thus occur in optically active isomeric forms. The simplest aldose, glyceraldehyde, contains one chiral center (central carbon atom) and therefore has two different optical isomers.