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Modern Biotechnology: Principles & Applications:
Although homogenization is not usually used in the production of cheese milk Cheddar cheese, research has shown that homogenizing cream can have applications for Cheddar. Homogenization is most effective when the fat globules are in a liquid state, so the milk is preheated in the plate heat exchanger in the regeneration section of the HTST pasteurizer, where the temperature is raised to at least 60 °C before homogenization.
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In a two-stage homogenizer, pressures typically range from 10 to 25 MPa in the first stage and 5 MPa in the second stage. The only step in the milk processing system that guarantees the killing of pathogens and microorganisms is pasteurization.
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Thus, pasteurization can be considered the most critical segment of the cheese processing line. Another side benefit of pasteurization is that it also kills many spoilage microorganisms and inactivates enzymes that can contribute to quality cheese defects. Pasteurization contributes to the constancy of product quality.
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Of course, strict sanitation is critical up to and beyond pasteurization to ensure safety and quality dairy products. In HTST pasteurization, the milk must be kept at a temperature of at least 72C for a minimum of 15 seconds to legally pasteurize them.