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Solved Past Papers: BT402 – Microbial Biotechnology

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BT402 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES
BT402 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES

BT402: Microbial Biotechnology

The role of microbes in the petroleum industry:

Microbes (or microorganisms) are creatures too small to be seen with the naked eye. They include viruses, fungi, protozoa, microalgae, and bacteria. Bacteria live in common areas such as soil, water, food, and intestines of animals, as well as in high-risk areas such as rocks, glaciers, hot springs, and tropical oceans. Biodiversity shows a wide variety of biochemical and metabolic factors that have arisen through genetic diversity and natural selection in bacterial communities. BT402 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES

Microbial biotechnology:

Microbial biotechnology, powered by genetic studies, will lead to improvements such as improved vaccines and better diagnostic tools, improved microbial agents to control plant and animal pests, mutations in plants and animals to reduce risk, and the development of new industrial motives. and biodiversity, and the development of new microbial agents to improve soil and water pollution by the agricultural flow.

Microbial genomics research and microbial biotechnology are essential to the development of food safety, food safety, biotechnology, high-value products, human and nutritious nutrition, plant and animal protection, and further research based on agricultural science. BT402 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES

Vaccine:

The vaccine is a biological substance designed to protect people from infections and viruses. Vaccines are also called vaccines because they use our natural immune system to prevent infectious diseases. To understand how vaccines work, we need to consider how the immune system protects us from infections. BT402 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES

Immune system:

An immune system is a 24-hour machine equipped to control an attack by invaders to prevent or prevent infections. It is made up of organs, tissues, and various types of cells that work together to protect the body. The immune system should be able to determine which cells or proteins are normal in the body and which are foreign. Cells of viruses and viruses have symptoms called antigens. Antigens are able to produce an immune response in the body. Each type of bacterium or virus has different antigens.

The Importance of Vaccination:

Vaccines are long enough that many teens and parents are unaware of the devastation caused by infectious diseases worldwide. Many of the diseases that used to kill or maim many people no longer exist in the US. Because of this, many people think that these vaccines are no longer needed. Not so because most of these diseases are found in other parts of the world. BT402 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES

Antigen generation:

The first step in developing a vaccine is to produce an antigen that will trigger an immune response. For this purpose pathogen or DNA proteins need to be planted and harvested using the following methods: Bacteria are raised in key cells such as cells from chicken embryos or fertilized eggs (eg flu vaccine) or reproductive cell lines (eg hepatitis A). Bacteria are grown in bioreactors that are devices that utilize a specific growth factor that triggers the production of antigens.

Antigen dissociation and dissociation:

The purpose of this second step is to release as many viruses or viruses as possible. To achieve this, the antigen will be separated from the cells and separated from the proteins and other components of the existing growth pathway. BT402 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES

 

BT402 FINAL TERM PAST PAPERS MEGA FILES

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