Table of Contents
BIO731: Advanced Molecular Biology
Molecular biology is a branch of biology that studies the molecular basis of biological activity. Living organisms are just as complex as nonliving material, so a molecular biologist examines how molecules interact with living things to perform life’s functions. BIO731 Handouts pdf
BIO731 Handouts pdf
Course Category: Molecular Biology BIO731 Handouts pdf
Introduction to genetics, Molecules of Life: Protein, Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleic Acids. Clinical aspects of disorders, Investigating heredity molecules, DNA function and Replication, The Dilemmas, PCR techniques, electrophoresis, DNA Fingerprinting and Sequencing, Genetic Engineering, RFLP, Central Dogma of Molecular Biology, Cell signaling, genetic disorders, Genetic bases mutations, DNA and RNA extraction, Chromosomes staining techniques, different type of PCR types, Applications of PCR, blotting types and procedure. BIO731 Handouts pdf
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BIO731: Advanced Molecular Biology
The term molecular biology was first introduced in 1945 by William Astbury, who was referring to the chemical and biological research of macromolecules in biology. By that time, biologists had already identified many of the chemical compounds within the cell. The importance of specific reactions and the structure of proteins in describing many cellular features was also appreciated. However, the development of molecular biology had to wait to understand that the most beneficial mechanisms could be made by studying all simplified systems such as viruses and bacteria that release information about basic biological processes more easily than animal cells.
Molecules of Life
All living things on Earth are made up of four types of molecules. These four types of molecules are commonly referred to as living molecules. The four living cells are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and nucleic acids. Each of these four groups is essential to every single body on Earth. Without any of these four molecules, living cells cannot survive. All four living molecules are essential for the structure and function of cells, in many cases, in both ways.
Proteins are the first molecules in life and are the building blocks of life. The most common protein molecules are found in cells. When all the water is released from the cell, the protein makes up more than half of the remaining weight.
Carbohydrates are an important source of energy. It also provides support for cellular structure and support for interaction between cells. The carbohydrate molecule is made up of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are found in sugar or a lot of sugar mixed together.
Lipids are a group of highly flexible molecules that include fats, oils, waxes, and other steroids. These molecules are composed mainly of carbon and hydrogen chains called fatty acids. Fatty acids combine with a series of atoms to form many different lipids.
Nucleic acid with long chains forms many small molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made up of a group of sugars, bases, and phosphate. There are two types of nucleic acids that are essential for life. These are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid).
DNA is the most well-known genetic component of a cell. DNA is responsible for carrying out all the information needed to keep the body healthy, growing, and reproducing.
RNA is a lesser-known molecule but also plays an important role in cells. RNA molecules are used to translate information stored in DNA molecules and use their information to make proteins. Without RNA, the information in DNA would be useless.